Classroom Connections


Classroom Connections
Penny Colman classroom connections

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: A Friendship That Changed the World
Thanksgiving; The True Story
Adventurous Women: Eight True Stories About Women Who Made a Difference
Where the Action Was: Women War Correspondents in World War II
Girls: A History of Growing Up Female in America
Rosie the Riveter: Women Working on the Home Front in World War II
A Woman Unafraid: The Achievements of Frances Perkins
How a Teacher Used Rosie the Riveter to Teach Poetry and Women’s History
Breaking the Chains: The Crusade of Dorothea Lynde Dix
Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts: A History of Burial


Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: A Friendship That Changed the World



About the Book:

256 pages, 63 photographs, author’s note, epilogue, chronology, places to visit, namesakes, acknowledgments, source notes, selected bibliography, webliography, photo credits, index.

Table of Contents:
Author’s Note
Prologue: Imagine a time

Part I
Chapter 1: “Ah, You Should Have Been a Boy!”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: 1815-1832
Chapter 2: “An Affectionate Family”
Susan Brownell Anthony: 1820-1832
Chapter 3: “Rousing Arguments”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: 1833-1839
Chapter 4: “Hardscrabble Times”
Susan Anthony: 1833-1839
Chapter 5: “A New World”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: 1840-1847
Chapter 6: “Sink or Swim”
Susan B. Anthony: 1840-1847
Chapter 7: “To Do and Dare Anything”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: 1848-1850
Chapter 8: “ Out of Sorts with the World”
Susan B. Anthony: 1848-1850

Part 2
Chapter 9: “An Intense Attraction”
Elizabeth and Susan: 1851-1853
Chapter 10: “Do You Not See?”
A Woman’s Rights Point of View: 1853-1854
Chapter 11: “Where Are You?”
Challenging Times: 1855-1859
Chapter 12: “Nevertheless You Are Right”
Controversy: 1860
Chapter 13 “Put on Your Armor and Go Forth”
Women Rally: 1861-1866

Part 3
Chapter 14: “Keep the Thing Stirring”
Two Campaigns: 1867
Chapter 15: “Male Versus Female”
Division in the Ranks: 1868-1870
Chapter 16: “The Crowning Insult”
“Another Battle: 1870-1871
Chapter 17 “I Have Been & Gone & Done It!”
Taking a Stand: 1871-1872
Chapter 18: “Our Friendship Is Too Long Standing”
Gains and Losses: 1873-1879

Part 4

Chapter 19: “We Stood Appalled”
Monumental Project: 1880-1883
Chapter 20: “Brace Up and Get Ready”
Setbacks: 1884-1889
Chapter 21: “Under Your Thumb”
A Mountain of Work: 1890-1895
Chapter 22: “To Stir You and Others Up”
Free Expression: 1896-1900
Chapter 23: Oh, the Awful Hush”
The End: 1900-1906

Epilogue
Chronology
Places to Visit
Namesakes
Acknowledgments
Source Notes
Selected Bibliography
Webliography
Photo Credits
Index

Classroom Connections

Research

  • Review the list of sources on the Webliography. Select one, review it, and describe how you could use it to do a research project.
  • Go to the Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog at http://www.loc.gov/pictures and search for a topic or person related to Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, such as “suffrage,” “women’s rights,” “Lucretia Mott,” or “Sojourner Truth.” Make a photo album of what you think are the most interesting images.

Literature

  • Go to Project Gutenberg at www.gutenberg.org and do an author search for “Elizabeth Cady Stanton.” Download and read sections of her autobiography, Eighty Years and More: Reminiscences 1815-1897, paying particular attention to her writing style, especially her voice. Write a review of her as a writer.
  • Go to Project Gutenberg at www.gutenberg.org and do search for Adam Bede. By George Eliot. Read the book and compare your response to Elizabeth’s and Susan’s (see pages 98-99).

Art

  • Draw or paint your portrait of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
  • Select a scene from the book, such as Elizabeth’s letter to her son Neil in which she describes what would happen if a bull was chasing them and her legs were encumbered by petticoats (see page 65), and illustrate it.

Drama Movement

  • Suffrage advocates in the twentieth century staged elaborated pageants and parades to draw attention to the fight for the vote. Plan and perform a pageant or a parade that you think Elizabeth and Susan would have enjoyed.

Social Studies

  • Review the Chronology on pages 225-229 and add five significant events that happened in other parts of the world.
  • Reread the section on pages 202-203 about the “firestorm of criticism” to The Woman’s Bible. Imagine you are at the convention that voted to censor Elizabeth Cady Stanton: How would you have voted? Do you agree or disagree with Susan B. Anthony’s decision to not resign her position as president. Explain your answers.

Geography

  • On a map, locate 10 of the places listed in the Places to Visit, on pages 230-232.
  • Make a map with the cities (see p. 120) on the two and a half week long speaking tour that Susan B. Anthony took with George Train in Kansas in 1867.

Mathematics

  • Figure out the distance that Susan B. Anthony and George Train traveled during their two and a half week long speaking tour in Kansas in 1867 (see list of cities on page 120).

Science

  • Identify women who were breaking the barriers in science during the 1800s, including Clemence Lozier, a close friend of Elizabeth and Susan, and Maria Mitchell, a strong supporter of woman suffrage.
  • In the late 1890s, Elizabeth visited the inventor Nikola Tesla, on Long Island where he had built a laboratory and transmitting tower. In her diary, she wrote, “He said to me the other day: ‘It is possible to telegraph to all parts of the earth without wires.’ Think of it! Where will the wonders of science end?” Write a letter to Elizabeth Cady Stanton in which you describe three contemporary wonders of science.

Health

  • Elizabeth was told she had cataracts in both eyes in the late 1890s. Compare and contrast the standard treatment for cataracts in her time and today.
  • What do you think about the “water cure” that Susan underwent (see p. 81)? Are there similar “cures” being promoted today?

  • Thematic Units
    Friendship
    Women’s Rights
    Suffrage
    Activism
    Social Change
    19th Century
    Role Models
    U.S. Constitution
    Nonfiction Writing


    Thanksgiving: The True Story


    About the Book:

    144 pages, 60 photographs and illustrations, map, table, author’s note, acknowledgments, chronology, notes and sources.


    Every year on the fourth Thursday of November, Americans celebrate Thanksgiving with family, friends, and food. But what is the origin of this holiday? What about the traditions and meaning? Have they changed?  Thanksgiving: The True Story is a fascinating exploration of this cherished holiday. The book is organized into two parts. Part I is about the origins of the Thanksgiving that we celebrate today. Chapter 1 examines twelve competing claims for the location of the “first” Thanksgiving—two in Texas, two in Florida, one in Maine, two in Virginia, and five in Massachusetts.  Chapters 2 and 3 reveal the true origins of our Thanksgiving. Chapter 4 answers the question: What about the “Pilgrim and Indian” Thanksgiving story?  Part II focuses on Thanksgiving gatherings in chapter 5, activities in chapter 6, food in chapter 7, and meanings in chapter 8.

    Table of Contents:

    Author’s Note
    Part I: Thanksgiving Origins
    Chapter 1  The “First” Thanksgiving: Competing Claims
    Chapter 2  Origins of Our Thanksgiving: Two Very Old Traditions
    Chapter 3  Sarah Josepha Hale’s Campaign: “Day of National Thanksgiving:
    Chapter 4  The “Pilgrim and Indian” Story

    Part II:  Thanksgiving Traditions

    Chapter 5  Gatherings: Family and Friends
    Chapter 6  Activities: Good Deeds, Parades, and Football
    Chapter 7  Food: Turkey and Lasagna
    Chapter 8  Many Meanings

    Chronology
    Notes and Sources
    Index

    Classroom Connections

    Note: I use "Pilgrim and Indian" in quotation marks when I am writing about the traditional story about the "first" Thanksgiving that has been taught to generations of Americans. Otherwise I use Native American or when possible the tribal name such as Wampanoag. In the book, Do All Indians Live in Tipis? Questions & Answers from the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution (New York: Collins, 2007), Mary Ahenakew answers the question: What is the correct terminology: American Indian, Indian, Native American, or Native?: "All of the above terms are acceptable. The consensus, however, is that whenever possible, Native people prefer to be called by their specific tribal name . . .As an adjective, many people now prefer to use simply Native or Indian. . . . In Central and South America the direct translation for Indian has negative connotations. As a result, Spanish speakers use the word indigenas.

    Research

    • Describe three things you learned about doing research from reading the Author’s Note on pages 3-6.
    • Do picture research to illustrate a topic that interests you.  Use at least three different sources to find pictures.

    Literature

    • Ask your grandparents or other older relatives to describe how they celebrated Thanksgiving when they were your age.  Write an essay about what you learned from them.
    • Discuss why quotation marks appear around the phrase "Pilgrim and Indian" story when it appears in the book. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotation_mark

    Art

    • Read the historic marker to Sarah Josepha Hale on p. 42.  Turn the information into a visual image such as a picture, cartoon, collage, etc.
    • Create decorations for the table on Thanksgiving Day.

    Drama Movement

    • Create a dance based on one or more verses of “The New-England Boy’s Song” (pages 82-83).
    • Study the descriptions of the vegetable costumes for the fancy ball (pages 93-94). Make one of the costumes or create a new costume for your favorite vegetable and have a fancy ball or a dance.
      Music
    • Imagine that you are in charge of selecting music to play on the radio on  Thanksgiving Day.  Make a list of your top ten picks and explain your selections.
    • Write the lyrics for a Thanksgiving song that expresses your feelings about the holiday.

    Social Studies

    • Compare and contrast what you see in the three pageant photographs on pp. 71,   
      73, 74.  Describe Thanksgiving Day programs or activities that were or are held in your community.  Do you think Thanksgiving should be celebrated in schools? If so, how?  Should the traditional “Pilgrim and Indian” story be included?   
    • Select one claim from Table 1 that intrigues you and learn more about it.

    Geography

    • On the map on page 14-15, locate the places mentioned in the captions on  the following pages 23, 26, 28, 29, 42, 71, 73, 74, 85, 86, 101, 112, and 114.
    •  Read page 87 and locate the places on a map where people celebrated Thanksgiving.

    Mathematics

    • Fifteen people are coming to eat Thanksgiving dinner at your house.  How big a turkey do you need to buy?  How long do you need to roast it in the oven?
    • Plan a Thanksgiving menu and based on current prices figure out how much it will cost.

    Science

    • Read the caption for the picture of cooking turkeys in an imu (p. 112). What is in the banana tree stumps and ti leaves that creates the steam? (Check out http://www.primitiveways.com/Imu2.html for fascinating information and pictures)
    • Put fresh cranberries in a container of water.  How do you explain what happens?

    Health

    • Create a Thanksgiving menu with foods from all the five major food groups: grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans. (see www.mypyramid.gov)
    • Calculate the carbohydrate content in each of the food items on your menu. Compare that result to the recommend daily allowance on the food pyramid.     

     


    Adventurous Women: Eight True Stories About Women Who Made a Difference


    About the Book:

    224 pages, 27 photographs, map, author’s note, extensive end matter

    A collection of true stories about eight inspiring women from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds who were bold enough to confront obstacles and take risks in the pursuit of their goals. Adventurous Women is a book that celebrates the intelligence, fortitude, courage, and contributions of women.

    Table of Contents:

    Author’s Note
    Chapter 1: Louise Boyd: Arctic Explorer
    Cold? Yes . . . I love it
    Chapter 2: Mary Gibson Henry: Plant Hunter
    Blank Spot on the Map
    Chapter 3: Juana Briones: Enterprising Family Head
    A Preeminent Woman
    Chapter 4: Alice Hamilton: Supersleuth; Mary McLeod Bethune: Passionate Educator
    Great Clouds of Yellow and Orange Fumes
    Chapter 5: Mary McLeod Bethune: Passionate Educator
    I Will Build Them Again
    Chapter 6: Katharine Wormeley: Daring “Superintendent
    Whirlwind of Work
    Chapter 7: Biddy Mason: Fierce Fighter
    For the Sum of Love and Affection and Ten Dollars
    Chapter 8: Peggy Hull: Intrepid Reporter
    To Be Somebody

    Very Brief Chronologies Places to Visit
    Namesakes
    Acknowledgments
    Source Notes
    Selected Bibliography
    Photo Credit
    Index

    Classroom Connections

    Literature

    • Read the letters Katharine Wormeley wrote, pages 116-130. Select a letter and write a return letter to Wormeley.
    • Mary Gibson Henry wrote vivid descriptions of flowers, e.g. page 39. Pick a flower, study it, and write a description.

    Art

    • Study the marker to Juana Briones, p. 62, the statue of Mary McLeod Bethune, p. 103, and the memorial to Biddy Mason, p. 132. 
    • Create a piece of art that commemorates one of the women who doesn’t have a marker, statue or memorial: Louise Boyd, Mary Gibson Henry, Alice Hamilton, Katharine Wormeley, Peggy Hull.
    • Create a mural with images of all eight women and scenes from their adventures.

    Drama Movement

    • Select and dramatize a scene from the book, e.g. Juana Briones milking the cow, pages 54-56; Peggy Hull’s hike, page 146-147, or her encounter with the soldiers, pages 157-159; Mary McLeod Bethune and her students standing up to the Ku Klux Klan, page 99.
    • Create a dance that represents the words of one of Biddy Mason’s relatives at the dedication of the memorial to Mason: “It took 100 years for Biddy Mason to be recognized but we walk a lot taller knowing this history.” Page 143

    Music

    • Mary Gibson Henry took a hand-cranked Victrola, or record player, on her first adventure and listened to music, p. 36. Get a picture of a Victrola and compare it to pictures of the modern things people use to listen to music.  List the music you would take with you on an adventure trip.
    • Select three scenes from the book and set them to music, e.g. Biddy Mason’s trek with the wagon train, pages 136-137; Katharine Wormeley’s description of the storm, page 121, letter dated May 31; Louise Boyd becoming the first woman to fly over and around the North Pole, page 25.

    Social Studies

    • Select three photographs and describe exactly what you see in the photograph. What can you conclude from what you see? What questions does each photograph raise? What can you imagine you would hear or smell or feel?
    • There is a brief chronology for each woman on pp. 163-166. Make one timeline with all the dates for each woman arranged in chronological order.  Note instances when their lives overlapped. Add historic and cultural events to the timeline.

    Geography

    • Select a woman and track her adventures on a map.
    • Locate all “Places to Visit” on pages 167-169 on a map.

    Mathematics

    • Select two sites from the “Places to Visit”, pages 167-169, and figure the distance from your school to each site. Calculate how long it would take you to drive there going 55 MPH.
    • Calculate the age of each woman when she died. See their birth and death dates on pages 163-166

    Science

    • Alice Hamilton investigated many chemicals. Select two and learn about them.
    • Louise Boyd loved Arctic ice. Research the status of the ice in the Arctic Region today. Discuss what Louise Boyd might say about what is happening.

    Health

    • Juana Briones was known as a cuandera, or traditional healer, page 52.  Research kinds of treatments that were used in the 18th century.
    • What kinds of disabilities are caused by the chemicals that Alice Hamilton investigated, e.g. lead? What types of industrial/environmental toxins are a problem today? Are they the same or different from what Alice Hamilton investigated?
    Thematic Units
    Nonfiction Writing (see the Author’s note)
    Essays
    Letters
    Adventures
    Travel
    Explorers
    Scientists
    Plant Hunters
    Midwives
    Journalists
    Botany
    Entrepreneurs
    Slavery
    Careers
    Global Warming
    Environment
    War
    Medicine
    Botany
    Chemistry


    Where the Action Was: Women War Correspondents in World War II


    About the Book:

    128 pages, 83 photographs by and of women war correspondents, actual newspaper dispatches and headlines, maps, bibliography, author's note, and index.

    Chronicles the lives of women war correspondents who found ways around the restrictions against women and risked their lives to bring Americans some of the biggest stories of World War II. Features Martha Gellhorn, Margaret Bourke White, Lee Miller, Dickey Chapelle, Sonia Tomara, Iris Carpenter, Lee Carson, Virginia Cowles, Ruth Cowan, Helen Kirkpatrick, Ann Stringer, Toni Frissel, Marguerite Higgins, Lyn Crost, Virginia Irwin, Patricia Lochridge, Tania Long, Eleanor Packard, Inez Robb, Sigrid Schultz.

    Table of Contents:

    Preface: Setting the Stage
    Chapter 1: Prelude to World War II in Europe
    Chapter 2: Sounding the Alarm in Europe
    Chapter 3: Europe Goes to War
    Chapter 4: The United States Goes to War
    Chapter 5: Action in North Africa and China
    Chapter 6: Getting to Italy
    Chapter 7: D-Day
    Chapter 8: Action in Europe
    Chapter 9: Advancing Toward Germany
    Chapter 10: Action in the Pacific
    Chapter 11: Crossing the Rhine
    Chapter 12: Winning the War
    Chapter 13: After the War

    Selected Bibliography
    Acknowledgments
    Author’s Note
    Index

    Where the Action Was can be used across the curriculum to teach: current events (e.g. current conflicts and news coverage, issues of international conflicts and how they are handled and reported, and issues facing women journalists today); nonfiction writing (e.g. reportage); and photography(e.g. visual texts) and photojournalism; various aspects of World War II, including the events leading up to World War II, key events in World War II; history of women in journalism; biographies of selected women journalists; oral history and autobiographies (see the bibliography). For a radio interview with Penny Colman Click Here

    Classroom Connections

    Literature

    • Read the "word picture of sights, sounds, and feelings" that Martha Gellhorn wrote ( p. 3, first paragraph). What does she do with her writing to help the reader experience the scene that she saw? Is her writing effective?
    • Write your own "word picture of sights, sounds, and feelings.
    • Select one of the women correspondents, do additional research (see selected bibliography), and write a 3-4 page paper about her, including why you selected her.

    Art

    • Illustrate the timeline (see activity under social studies)
    • Select a photograph or a scene in the text and recreate it in a painting, drawing, or collage

    Drama and Movement

    • Create a dramatic presentation based on one of the chapters in Where the Action Was. (After World War II, two women war correspondents-Martha Gellhorn and Virginia Cowles-teamed up to write a play, “Love Goes to Europe.”  It was set on the Italian front and presented a humorous and lively look at the experiences of two female correspondents.)

    Music

    • Go to: http://www.nancigriffith.com/lyrics.php?track=46 and read the lyrics for the song Nancy Griffith wrote about Dickey Chapelle: "Pearl's Eye View: (the Life of Dickey Chapelle" on Griffith's album “Clock without Hands.” If possible, listen to the song, too. Discuss your reaction to Griffith’s lyrics and music.
    • Write your own song about a woman war correspondent.

    Social Studies

    • Select three photographs and describe exactly what you see in the photograph. What can you conclude from what you see? What questions has the photograph raised? What can you imagine you would hear or smell or feel?
    • Print a hard copy of the following timeline based on Where the Action Was. Expand it with additional information from Where the Action Was and other sources, including those listed in the bibliography.

    Selected Timeline

    1848
    Margaret Fuller covers the Italian revolution (p. vii).

    1914
    Mary Roberts Rinehart, Peggy Hull, and Nellie Bly cover World War II (pp. vii-x).

    1918
    Peggy Hull becomes the first woman to be officially accredited as a war correspondent by the United States War Department (p. ix).

    1936
    Martha Gellhorn travels to Spain to cover her first war, the Spanish Civil War (p. 1).
    Eleanor Packard covers Italy's invasion of Ethiopia (p. 4).

    1938
    Martha Gellhorn and Virginia Cowles cover Germany's invasion of Czechoslovakia (pp. 6-8).

    1939
    Sigrid Schultz reports the news that Germany and the Soviet Union have signed a mutual nonaggression pact (pp. 10-11).
    Sonia Tomara covers Germany's invasion of Poland (p. 11).
    Britain and France declare war on Germany, officially starting World War II (p. 11).
    Therese Bonney covers the Soviet Union's invasion of Finland (pp. 13-14).

    1940
    Virginia Cowles and Sonia Tomara cover the fall of Paris (pp. 14-17).
    Helen Kirkpatrick covers the Battle of Britain and the Blitz (pp. 17-20).
    Mary Marvin Breckinridge becomes the first woman radio broadcaster to cover war (pp. 20-21).
    Betty Wason covers Germany's invasion of Greece (p. 22).

    1941
    Margaret Bourke-White covers Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union (pp. 23-25).
    United States enters World War II. Now U.S. correspondents who want to cover a war zone have to be accredited by the U.S. War Department. (pp. 26-28).

    1942
    Margaret Bourke-White and Sonia Tomara are among the first woman to become officially accredited war correspondents in World War II (p. 29).
    Bourke-White is the first woman to go on a bombing mission (pp. 33-35).
    Ruth Cowan and Inez Robb cover the war in North Africa (pp. 36-39).

    1943
    More women obtain accreditation, including Martha Gellhorn (pp. 40-46).

    1944
    Even more women receive accreditation (pp. 48-50), including Iris Carpenter (pp. 47-48) and Lee Carson (pp. 49-50).
    Martha Gellhorn stows aboard a hospital transport ship that went to Normandy on D-Day plus one. She is arrested for not having the proper credentials to go into a war zone (pp. 51-53).
    Iris Carpenter is court-martialed for going into a war zone (pp. 53-55).
    Lee Miller covers the siege of St. Malo and photographs one of the first times napalm is used in an air attack. She is arrested for not having the proper credentials to go into a war zone. (pp. 56-59).
    Sonia Tomara, Lee Carson, Martha Gellhorn, and other women cover the liberation of Paris (pp. 60-61).
    Lyn Crost obtains accreditation and covers the Nisei combat troops in Italy (pp. 62, 64).
    Elizabeth Phillips becomes the only woman of color to become an accredited war correspondent (p. 63).
    Martha Gellhorn, Iris Carpenter, and Lee Carson cover the action in northern Europe (pp. 65-70)

    1945
    Women continue to get accredited, including Dickey Chapelle who covers the action in the Pacific theater (pp. 71-81).
    Iris Carpenter and Lee Carson cover the action when the First Army crosses the Rhine River, the last major obstacle between the Allies and the heart of Germany (pp. 83-86).
    Marguerite Higgins, Margaret Bourke-White, and Lee Miller cover the liberation of Buchenwald, the first major concentration camp to be liberated. (pp. 87-90).
    Ann Stringer scoops the story of the arrival of the Russians at Torgau, Germany, the official meeting place of American and Russian troops (pp. 91-94).
    Marguerite Higgins scoops the story of the liberation of Dachua (pp. 94-99).
    Germany and Japan surrender (p. 99).
    Postwar Years
    Jobs in journalism get scarce for women as men return from the military. By 1968, there would be fewer women foreign correspondents than there had been in the prewar years. (p. 102).
    The women in Where the Action Was have a variety of postwar experiences (pp. 103-110).

    Geography

    • Locate the events in the text on the maps in the front of Where the Action Was.
    • Trace the route of one of more of the women correspondents in Where the Action Was, e.g. Martha Gellhorn and Dickey Chapelle (see the index).

    Mathematics

    • 127 women were accredited as war correspondents. What percent of those women appear in Where the Action Was (don't to forget to include the women who only appear in the pictures)?
    • As of 2006, all the women in Where the Action Was were dead. Use the Internet to locate the birth and death dates of all the women and figure out how old they were when they died.

    Science

    • Lee Miller photographed one of the first times napalm was used in an air attack (pp. 58-59). Write a report about napalm, include what it is, what it does, and how it has been used since World War II.
    • Read p 33 and the description of how Margaret Bourke-White prepared herself to take photographs during high-altitude flying. Study the photograph on p. 34.  Describe what her camera and clothing would look like in a picture taken today.

    Health

    • Read Lee Carson's account of what war in winter meant (p. 50) and discuss the physical and emotional effects of living such a life.
    • Research the effects of high-altitudes on people.

    Thematic Units
    War
    World War II
    Journalism
    Women Journalists
    Nonfiction Writing
    Photography
    Careers


    A Woman Unafraid: The Achievements of Frances Perkins


    About the Book:

    129 pages, 22 photographs, including 2 political cartoons, afterword, chronology, cabinet members, places to visit, notes, bibliography, index

    Table of Contents
    Chapter 1: Cockroaches and a Tricorn Hat 1880- 1898
    “I could talk well . . . .”
    Chapter 2: Perk 1898-1910
    “I discovered for the first time . . . that I had a mind.”
    Chapter 3: Something Had to Be Done 1910-1918
    “I felt I must sear it not only on my mind but on my heart . . .”
    Chapter 4: Extraordinary Energy 1919-1928
    “Doing means digging your nails in and working like a truck horse.”
    Chapter 5: Working Together 1929-1932
    “ . . . the beauty of loyalty and chivalry between women.”
    Chapter 6: Madam Secretary 1933
    “It is there to be done, so I do it.”
    Chapter 7: The New Deal and Bloody Thursday 1933-1938
    “We were always in a crisis.”
    Chapter 8: Great Achievement 1934-1938
    “It is a great satisfaction . . . .”
    Chapter 9: Storms and Trials 1939-1940
    “It hurt.”
    Chapter 10: War 1941-1945
    “I felt I must stand by . . .”
    Chapter 11: So Much More to Do 1946-1965
    “ . . . the time has gone so fast.”

    Afterword
    Chronology
    Cabinet Member
    Places to Visit
    Acknowledgments
    Notes
    Bibliography
    Photo Credits
    Index

    Classroom Connections

    Research

    • Go to the website, “Social Security Pioneers: Frances Perkins,” at: http://www.francesperkinscenter.org Review the material, including the “Additional material related to Frances Perkins.” (Don’t forget to listen to her radio broadcast.) List facts, anecdotes, and other material that add to what you learned about Frances Perkins when you read A Woman Unafraid.
    • Go to the Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog at www.loc.gov/pictures and search for a topic or person related to A Woman Unafraid: The Achievements of Frances Perkins, such as “Social Security,” “Great Depressions,” “Frances Perkins,” “Al Smith,” “Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Make a photo album of what you think are the most interesting images.

    Literature

    • In your own words, write a description of Frances Perkins that you would use to introduce her to your classmates.
    • Select quotations by Frances Perkins in the book that you particularly liked and explain why you selected them.

    Art

    • Draw or paint your portrait of Frances Perkins (her official portrait is on page 86).
    • Select a scene from the book, such as when Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked Perkins to be his secretary of labor on February 22, 1933 (pages 59-60) and illustrate it.

    Drama Movement

    • Create a dance in which you interpret a period in Frances Perkins’s life, such as her college years or an incident, such as when she witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire.
    • In 1919 Frances Perkins convinced striking workers in Rome, New York to get rid of their dynamite. She later described watching the men come up from a basement with ‘their loads in suitcases, bags, and various other things—I remember one man put it in a baby carriage—one by one, two by two, they went over toward the canal and dumped it in.” Write a skit that dramatized that incident.

    Social Studies

    • Review the Chronology on pages 114-116 and add five significant events that happened in other parts of the world.
    • Go to http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/cabinet and compare the contemporary U.S. Cabinet with the Cabinet when Perkins was Secretary of Labor on page 117-118. Watch the video. Record your observations about the changes.

    Geography

    • On a map, locate the places listed in the Places to Visit, on page 119.

    Mathematics

    • Review the typical yearly salaries and prices in 1933 on page 59 and compare them to today’s figures.

    Science

    • Create a timeline of scientific inventions and advancements during Frances Perkins years as Secretary of Labor that affected workers.

    Health

    • Do an Internet search for information on the Gauley Bridge Disaster, an incident that was investigated by the Division of Labor Standard, which Francis Perkins created. Without delay, she organized a National Silicosis Conference to educate people about the health hazards and prevent a reoccurrence of such a tragedy. What contemporary health hazard you would like to educate people about? Explain your answer.


    Girls: A History of Growing Up Female in America


    About the Book:

    192 pages, 131 black and white photographs and illustrations, some published for the first time; author's note; selected sources; index

    The true and untold story of growing up female from pre-Colonial times to the 21st century. Drawing on diaries, letters, popular magazines, poetry, advice books, cartoons, and journal, this book highlights girls’ spirit, will, courage, and contributions. It features girls from all regions of the country, from all walks of life, of different races, ethnicities, religions and class.

    Table of Contents:

    Author’s Note
    Chapter 1: It's a Girl: Understanding Gender
    Chapter 2: By Land and Sea: How Girls Came to America
    Chapter 3: In Their Mother's Footsteps: Girls in the Early Colonial Period
    Chapter 4: New Ideas: Girls in the Late Colonial Period
    Chapter 5: Making Demands: Girls in the Early Nineteenth Century
    Chapter 6: Diverse Lives: Girls in the Mid-Nineteenth Century
    Chapter 7: New Opportunities: Girls in the Late Nineteenth Century
    Chapter 8: "Prize It!": Girls in the Early Twentieth Century
    Chapter 9: Changes and Challenges: Girls in the Mid-Twentieth Century
    Chapter 10: Unprecedented Possibilities: Girls Approaching the Millennium

    Selected Sources for Further Reading
    Index

    Among the 130 images in Girls: A History of Growing Up Female in America , you will find a picture of me as a young girl on page 159 and of my sister on page 171. This is my invitation to readers of all ages to insert their own pictures and stories into the text.  Since the book is chronological, readers can easily situate themselves and their relatives and friends into this true story of growing up female in America.  My image is of an accordion, as readers make Girls: A History of Growing Up Female in America get fatter and fatter. My message is: We are all history makers!

    Classroom Connections

    Literature

    • Select a girl in Girls. Write at least six questions that you would like to ask her. Explain why you selected her and why you wrote each question. 
    • Read the last paragraph on p. 14.  Express your opinion in an essay, article or a poem about what growing up female means today.

    Art

    • Carolyn Richards listed artifacts—objects—in her diary that were part of her life (pp. 97-100).
    • Create a mural with scenes from Carolyn’s diary that include some of these objects.
    • Make a women’s history display. See: picture on p. 170.

    Drama and Movement

    • Select and dramatize a scene from the book.
    • Read the words to “Naranja Dulce” (p. 13) and create your own dance.

    Music

    • Identify contemporary songs that deal with experiences of growing up female.
    • Explore the impact of these songs on people’s attitudes and behavior.

    Social Studies

    • Collect an oral history from a woman in your family or community. See: www.dohistory.or
    • Investigate your family tree. Ask the adult women in your life about their growing up experiences
    • Compare and contrast the similarities and differences of how the girls from each time period lived.
    • Identify and analyze the source documents. See: http://memory.loc.gov/learn/lessons/primary.html
    • Select four pictures. Write captions in which you tell why you picked each picture.
         

    Geography

    • Locate places that are mentioned in the text on a U.S. map.
    • When a girl’s name is associated with the place, include her name on the map, e.g. Lucretia Mott and Nantucket Island (p. 63); Alice Sue Fun and San Francisco (p. 123); Sheyann Webb and Selma, Alabama (p. 165); etc.

    Mathematics

    • Review the timeline on the inside cover of Girls. Identify other events that you think should be on the timeline.
    • Use the birth dates of yourself and two of your friends or family members to figure out where to put your pictures in the text.

    Science

    • Write a new caption for the picture on p. 179 that includes a description of the objects in the picture.
    • Create a display of the careers in science.

    Health

    • Discuss the controversy about bicycle riding (pp. 112-113).
    • Generate a list of other controversies about what females can and can’t do.
    • Read Yvonne Blue’s diary excerpts (pp. 143-145). What would you say to her? Was her teacher’s lecture helpful?
    Thematic Units
    US History
    US Women’s History www.nwhp.org
    Primary Source Documents
    Growing Up
    Use the index to locate text and images on various themes, including: education, child labor, fashion, gender immigrants, slavery, sports, suffrage movement, war, women’s rights, and work.
    Use the Author’s Note for units on research and sources.


    Rosie the Riveter: Women Working on the Home Front in World War II


    About the Book:

    120 pages, 74 archival images, posters, cartoons (including a photograph of war worker Norma Jeane Baker Dougherty, later known as Marilyn Monroe), selected list of women's wartime jobs, facts and figures, chronology, bibliography and notes, and index.

    A thorough look at a time in American history when “women were told that they could do anything. And they did.” Explores the enormous changes in American society and women’s lives, the propaganda campaign to get women both in and out of the workforce, and gives voice to women workers.

    Table of Contents:

    Chapter 1: War!: How are things going to change?
    Chapter 2: The Home Front: The exit of life-as-usual
    Chapter 3: Extraordinary Opportunities for Women: Rosie the Riveter
    Chapter 4: Getting Ready for War: The great arsenal for democracy
    Chapter 5: The First Six Months: Jobs, Jobs, Jobs
    Chapter 6: The War Wears On: I’ll do anything for my country.
    Chapter 7: The Final War Years: It’s a man’s and woman’s world.
    Chapter 8: Pioneers in the American Workplace: I had the chance to prove that I could do something.
    Chapter 9: Peace: The men had been promised their jobs when they came back.

    Select List of Women’s Wartime Jobs
    Facts & Figures about Women War Workers
    Chronology
    Bibiography and Notes
    Picture Credits
    Acknowledgments
    Index

    An online unit, "World War II Remembered" is located at: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/wwii/ahf/reilly/intro.htm.
    It has an overview by Penny Colman, an oral history by Betty Reilly about working in a plant building PT boats, and links to the song "Rosie the Riveter" and organizations like the Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS), Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASPS), Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) and the Women's Army Corps (WAC).

    Classroom Connections

    Literature

    • Go to www.rosietheriveter.org/memory.htm. Read “Wartime Memories” by Katie Grant. What surprised or astonished you as you read Grant’s “Wartime Memories.” Write Katie Grant a letter telling her your reaction to her memories.
    • Read Dot Chastney’s memories of World War II and the home front(pp 1, 3-4, 6-7, 8, 10-14, 53-54, 63-64, 95).  Identify an event that you lived through (it can be an event in your own life, or family, or a national or international event), and write your memories of what life for you as the event you selected was happening.
       

    Art

    • Study the cartoons on pages 48 and 98. What is the point of each cartoon? How effective is each cartoon? Draw two cartoons that express the same point.
    • Study Norman Rockwell's painting on the cover of Rosie the Riveter that appeared on the cover of a magazine in 1943. What was Rockwell trying to communicate? What he successful? Is this image of a working woman relevant to contemporary women? List the details in the paintings, e.g. the lunch box with "Rosie". Discuss the following questions: Are all of the details accurate, e.g. Rosie is wearing both goggles and an isinglass shield? Why did Rockwell include them, e.g. the lacy handkerchief and compact in Rosie's pocket? How do you feel about Rosie's pose and expression? Would you change either one? Why? How? Apply the same questions to J. Howard Miller's poster, "We Can Do It!" (p. 69).
    • Go to www.rosietheriveter.org/memdes.htm. Study the Rosie the Riveter Memorial and write your reaction to it. Design your own Rosie the Riveter Memorial.

    Drama and Movement

    • Create a dramatic presentation featuring women who went to work during World War II.Create a dramatic presentation about life on the home front based on Dot Chastney and her true experiences (pages 1, 3-4, 6-8, 10, 11-14, 35, 53-54, 59, 63-67, 79, 95.
    • Create and perform a dance for the dedication ceremony of the Rosie the Riveter Monument.
       

    Music

    • Read the lyrics to "Rosie the Riveter" (the opening lyrics are at pp. 15-16, complete lyrics are at http://www.rosietheriveter.org/rosiemusic.htm).  Write another song about women war workers.
    • Listen to World War II music and compare it to contemporary music. Discuss the changes.

    Social Studies

    • Study the posters produced by the U.S. government during World War II on pages 51, 61, 66, 74. Who do you think is the intended audience for the posters? What does the government hope the audience will do? What purpose is served by each poster? How effective is each poster?
    • integrate the chronology on pp. 108-109 into the timeline for Where the Action Was in the social studies activity.

    Geography

    • Make a list of the places mentioned in Rosie and locate them on a map, e.g. Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey, p. 1 and Monroe, North Carolina, p. 12 caption.
               

    Mathematics

    • Examine the Facts & Figures on pp.106-107 and do additional calculation, e.g. express the increase in the number of employed women between 1940 to 1944 as a percentage.
    • Express the increase in the population of Burbank, CA, p. 56, and Seneca Illinois, p. 57,  in percentages.

    Science

    • Identify the "powder" that Peggy Terry's describes on p. 87 that turned her and her coworkers "orange." Do research on the types of chemicals that were typically used in factories during World War II.
    • Research the history of the development of the atomic bomb.

    Health

    • Read Peggy Terry's description of the powder that "turned us orange" on p. 87. According to Terry "We never questioned. None of us ever asked, 'What is this? Is it harmful?' We simply didn't think about it. That was just one of the conditions of the job." Today, would workers be unquestioning? Explain your answer. Identify legislation and agency that deal with working conditions.
    • Read the information about industrial accidents on p. 86-87. What types of accidents happened in school? What can be done to prevent them?
    Thematic Units
    World War II
    Life on the Home Front
    Women and Work
    Propaganda
    Women’s history see: http:nwhp.org
    Rosie the Riveter see:  www.rosietheriveter.org



    How A Teacher Used Rosie the Riveter to Teach Poetry and Women's History


    During a recent author visit at Rosa International Middle School, Cherry Hill, NJ, I walked into the library, and saw a display of student work based on my book, Rosie the Riveter: Women Working on the Home Front in World War II.

    Nina Bauman, the librarian, explained that Rachel Rosenblum, a 7th grade language teacher developed the assignment to teach poetry and women's rights. Later in the day, I met Rachel Rosenblum, a creative and enthusiastic young teacher. (Note: After my visit Rachel Rosenblum got married and is now Rachel Israelite.) She explained that she had given each student:

    1. An excerpt and photograph from Rosie the Riveter

    2. The assignment titled "Penny Colman is coming to Rosa!";

    3. A mentor text titled "A Long Road by Miss Rosenblum,"

    Also posted you'll find:.
    4. An email from Rachel Rosenblum to me with details about the assignment;

    5. Copies of six students' work - Ari Brill, Wesley Ho, Ariana Karnado, Ethan Klein, Amber Kusching, and Moriah Schervone.

    All the material is posted on my website with permission of Rachel Rosenblum and the students and their parents. Please do not reproduce any material without contacting me at pennycolman@gmail.com


    Breaking the Chains: The Crusade of Dorothea Lynde Dix


    About the Book:

    144 pages, 21 photographs, chart, epilogue, acknowledgments, First Annual Report of the Superintendent of the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, historic places to visit, further reading.

    Table of Contents
    Chapter 1: Hard Times
    I never had a childhood
    Chapter 2: Growing Up Fast
    The duties of a teacher elevate the mind
    Chapter 3: Important Friendships
    It was in winter that we first met. I shall ever love the chilly old season the better for that
    Chapter 4: A Mission for Life
    Some nobler purpose for which to labor, something which would fill the vacuum which I felt in my soul.
    Chapter 5: Gathering Evidence
    . . . the miserable, the desolate, the outcast...
    Chapter 6: Intrepid Traveler
    I know that it is necessary to make sacrifices and encounter dangers.
    Chapter 7: Relentless Crusader
    It is time that people should have learnt that to be insane is not to be disgraced; that sickness is not to be ranked with crime.
    Chapter 8:
    “It is a great satisfaction . . . .”
    Chapter 9: A Grand Idea
    I ask for the people that which is already the property of the people.
    Chapter 10: Indomitable Woman
    I have passed through dark and rough ways before and shall not now give out
    Chapter 11: The American Invader
    It is true I came her for pleasure but that is not reason why I should close my eyes to the condition of these most helpless of all God’s creatures.
    Chapter 12: Despite the Storm
    God spare our distressed country!
    Chapter 13: Doing Her Duty
    . . . but I did not choose to turn back
    Chapter 14: Never Quit
    I think even lying on my bed I can still do something.

    Epilogue
    It would seem that all my work is to be done over so far as the insane are concerned
    Chronology
    First Annual Report of the Superintendent of the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum
    Historic Places to Visit
    Acknowledgments
    Further Reading
    Index

    Classroom Connections

    Research

    • List three things you learned from Dorothea Lynde Dix about how to conduct an investigation. Discuss your insights with another classmate.
    • Select an issue that you care about and outline the steps you would take learn about it.

    Literature

    • In your own words, write a description of Dorothea Dix that you would use to introduce her to your classmates.
    • Select quotations by Dorothea Dix that appear in the book that you particularly liked and explain why you selected them.

    Art

    • Draw or paint your portrait of Dorothea Lynde Dix.
    • Select a scene from the book, such as when Dix goes to Sable Island and rides a little native pony around the island, surveying the remains of wrecked ships. (page 88)

    Drama Movement

    • Create a dance in which you dramatize Dorothea Dix’s crusade.

    Social Studies

    • Review the table on page 136 about the patients in the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum in 1848. Write your response to the information, in particular “4. Occupations” and “6. Alleged Causes.”
    • Review the chronology on pages 132-135 and add five significant events that happened in other countries.

    Geography

    • Locate the countries on a map that Dix visited in 1854-1856 (see chapter 11).

    Mathematics

    • Calculate the value of the 5,000,000 acres of public land that Dix asked Congress to set aside for hospitals. For years, Congress had been selling public lands for $1.25 to $2.00 an acre.

    Science

    • Dorothea Dix collected cuttings from trees and bushes and transplanted them on the grounds of mental hospitals. Make a cutting from a plant that you like and translate it someplace special. There is information on the Internet about how to do this (enter the search word “propagation”), including at: http://gardening.about.com/od/gardenprimer/ss/Cuttings.htm

    Health

    • Study the photographs on pages 48-49 or the whirling bed and chair, arm and leg restraints, and tranquilizing chair. Write your response to these treatment methods.

    Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts: A History of Burial


    About the Book:

    212 pages; 130 photographs, most taken by Penny Colman, including the cover image; extensive end matter, including epitaphs, common carvings on gravestones, chronology, glossary, bibliography, and index.

    An exploration of how diverse cultures, geographic regions and religions deal with death and honor their dead; based on extensive historical and anthropological research, intimate accounts, and interviews.

    Table of Contents:

    Preface
    Chapter 1: Dead is Dead: Defining Death
    Chapter 2: Death is Destiny: Understanding Death
    Chapter 3: What Happens to Corpses: Decomposition, Transplants, Autopsies, and Embalming
    Chapter 4: Bones and Ashes: Cremation and Other Ways to Dispose of Corpses
    Chapter 5: How to Contain the Remains: Urns, Coffins, Crypts, and Mausoleums
    Chapter 6: Where Corpses End Up: Cemeteries and Other Burial Sites
    Chapter 7: Rituals for People Who Have Died: Burial Customs, Ceremonies, and Celebrations
    Chapter 8: Death is Everywhere: Images in the Arts and Everyday Life

    “When I Die…”
    Where to Find the Remains and Burial Sites of Some Famous People
    Epitaphs: Poignant, Pious, Patriotic, Historic, and Humorous
    Common Carvings on Gravestones
    Chronology
    Glossary
    Bibliography
    Index

    Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts is rich with possibilities for use across the curriculum. It can be used as the basis for a unit or theme on death and burial or integrated into all subject areas by assigning sections that are relevant such as Chapter 8 for literature, art, and music; Chapters 1 and 3 for science; or the historical, archaeological, and anthropological information that is found throughout the book for social studies.

    Reading Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts is perfect preparation for field trips to cemeteries where students can look for historical and genealogical information; analyze changes in art and architecture; study the geology of gravestones and the effects of weathering; identify literary and religious quotations used in epitaphs; discuss feelings that cemeteries evoke; and make a map that could be used for self-guided tours with notations about interesting sights, including trees, statues, mausoleums, crypts, and gravestones.

    Classroom Connections

    Literature

    • Read pages 172-186. Compose an epitaph of your own for each of the five categories: poignant, pious, patriotic, historic, and humorous.
    • Read pages 146-148 and expand the list of texts that deal with death. Identify the texts that appeal to you and discuss why.
    • Visit a cemetery and select one headstone and write a story about a person(s) based on the information on the headstone.
    • Write a mystery that features a forensic entomologist (see page 49).

    Art

    • Study the paintings and sculpture in the text, pages 17, 24, 25, 26, 45, 50, 68, 121, 123, 137, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 179, and 188. Select your favorite(s) and discuss your reason.
    • Select a symbol from the list on pages 187 and 189 and study the carvings on page 188. Create an image for the symbol you selected that could be carved on a headstone.
    • Create a piece of art that you think should be in Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts and explain what it would contribute to the book.

    Drama and Movement

    • Study the picture on page 147. Create movements that express dying, death, and grief, being sensitive to the fact that there are a variety of cultural and religious attitudes about these experiences.
    • Identify characteristic movements that people in different cultures use to express grief.

    Music

    • Read pages 148-151 and expand the list of music that deals with death. Identify the music that appeals to you and discuss why.
    • Compose lyrics and/or music that deals with death.

    Social Studies

    • Study the chronology on pages 190-192. Expand it based on additional research and new discoveries (see the bibliography and check the Internet).
    • Compare and contrast the variety of attitudes, practices, and rituals presented in Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts.
    • Study the list of Burial Sites of Some Famous People in the United States (pages 166-171). Add ten more people to the list. Explain why you chose them. See: www.findagrave.com

    Geography

    • Locate on maps all the places mentioned in the book.
    • Locate on a U.S. map the U.S. cemeteries that are mentioned in the book.

    Mathematics

    • Do a life expectancy study based on the birth and death dates on the headstones in Corpses, Coffins, and Crypts.
    • Invite a monument maker to come and demonstrate the real life use of math in making monuments, e.g. figuring weights, mass, cost, and retail prices of the monument stones.

    Science

    • Read pages 52-59 and study the picture on page 58. Research the types of chemicals that have been and are used in embalming and write a report.
    • Read pages 43-46 and discuss the role of decomposition in the life cycle

    Health

    • Study the picture on page 30 and discuss the history of changes in infant/child mortality.
    • Compare and contrast and explain current worldwide rates of infant/child mortality.
    • Discuss factors that contribute to living a healthy life.
    Thematic Units
    Death
    Dying
    Burial Practices and Rituals
    Grief
    Creative Nonfiction
    Diversity
    Culture